Apache Solr 学习入门 (一)

学习环境:
OS:CentOS 7 mini
Apache Solr 6.3.0

Solr的安装

  1. Solr Release Page 可以下载到过去的历史版本。
  2. tar xzvf solr-6.3.0.tgz解压到指定目录下,就可以直接启动了。如下命令可以启动sample data:
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    ${solr}/bin/solr start -e tecjproducts

Solritas UI : http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/browse

  1. solr的停止和重启:
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    [solr@min02 solr63]$ bin/solr stop -p 8983  
    [solr@min02 solr63]$ bin/solr restart

Solr Core 的准备

  1. core (solrbook) 的创建:

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    [solr@min02 solr63]$ bin/solr create_core -c solrbook -d basic_configs
    Copying configuration to new core instance directory:
    /mnt/apps/solr63/server/solr/solrbook
    Creating new core 'solrbook' using command:
    http://localhost:8983/solr/admin/cores?action=CREATE&name=solrbook&instanceDir=solrbook
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":4950},
    "core":"solrbook"}
  2. solr core的重载:

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    [solr@min02 solr63]$ curl "http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/admin/cores?action=RELOAD&core=solrbook"
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <response>
    <lst name="responseHeader"><int name="status">400</int><int name="QTime">194</int></lst><lst name="error"><lst name="metadata"><str name="error-class">org.apache.solr.common.SolrException</str><str name="root-error-class">org.apache.solr.common.SolrException</str></lst><str name="msg">Core with core name [solrbook] does not exist.</str><int name="code">400</int></lst>
    </response>
    [solr@min02 solr63]$

Schema的定义

  1. 通过Schema API新加schema.xml定义field:
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    [solr@min02 solr63]$ curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary '{"add-field":{"name":"id","type":"string","indexed":"true","stored":"true","required":"true","multiValued":"false"}}' http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":87},
    "errors":[{
    "add-field":{
    "name":"id",
    "type":"string",
    "indexed":"true",
    "stored":"true",
    "required":"true",
    "multiValued":"false"},
    "errorMessages":["Field 'id' already exists.\n"]}]}
    [solr@min02 conf]$ curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary '{"add-field":{"name":"title","type":"text_ja","indexed":"true","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"false"},"add-field":{"name":"sumamry","type":"text_ja","indexed":"true","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"false"}}' http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":633}}
    [solr@min02 conf]$
    [solr@min02 conf]$ vi managed-schema
    [solr@min02 conf]$ curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary '{"add-field":{"name":"author","type":"string","indexed":"false","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"true"},"add-field":{"name":"intended_reader","type":"string","indexed":"false","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"true"},"add-field":{"name":"genre","type":"string","indexed":"false","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"true"},"add-field":{"name":"isbn","type":"string","indexed":"false","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"true"}}' http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":488}}
    [solr@min02 conf]$ curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary '{"add-field":{"name":"pub_date","type":"date","indexed":"true","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"false"}}' http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":267}}
    [solr@min02 conf]$ curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary '{"add-field":{"name":"price","type":"tint","indexed":"true","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"false"},"add-field":{"name":"pages","type":"tint","indexed":"false","stored":"true","required":"false","multiValued":"false"}}' http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema
    {
    "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":242}}

添加完后在schema.xml(6.x 是manage schema)中就可以看到定义的field了:

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<field name="author" type="string" multiValued="true" indexed="false" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="genre" type="string" multiValued="true" indexed="false" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="id" type="string" multiValued="false" indexed="true" required="true" stored="true"/>
<field name="intended_reader" type="string" multiValued="true" indexed="false" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="isbn" type="string" multiValued="true" indexed="false" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="pages" type="tint" multiValued="false" indexed="false" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="price" type="tint" multiValued="false" indexed="true" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="pub_date" type="date" multiValued="false" indexed="true" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="sumamry" type="text_ja" multiValued="false" indexed="true" required="false" stored="true"/>
<field name="title" type="text_ja" multiValued="false" indexed="true" required="false" stored="true"/>

也可以导入配置好的solr_schema.json文件使之反应到schema定义文件中:  
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curl -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' --data-binary @solrbook_schema.json http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/schema

文件的提交更新和删除

  1. 添加文件,可以使用post tool和curl两种方法:

    1. 使用post tool投入json/xml数据

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      [solr@min02 solr63]$ bin/post -c solrbook /mnt/hgfs/shared/examples/ch03/json-sample.json 
      java -classpath /mnt/apps/solr63/dist/solr-core-6.3.0.jar -Dauto=yes -Dc=solrbook -Ddata=files org.apache.solr.util.SimplePostTool /mnt/hgfs/shared/examples/ch03/json-sample.json
      SimplePostTool version 5.0.0
      Posting files to [base] url http://localhost:8983/solr/solrbook/update...
      Entering auto mode. File endings considered are xml,json,jsonl,csv,pdf,doc,docx,ppt,pptx,xls,xlsx,odt,odp,ods,ott,otp,ots,rtf,htm,html,txt,log
      POSTing file json-sample.json (application/json) to [base]/json/docs
      1 files indexed.
      COMMITting Solr index changes to http://localhost:8983/solr/solrbook/update...
      Time spent: 0:00:01.210
    2. 使用curl投入json/xml数据

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      [solr@min02 ch03]$ curl "http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/update?commit=true" --data-binary @json-sample.json -H 'Content-type:text/json; charset=utf-8'
      {"responseHeader":{"status":0,"QTime":265}}
    3. 除此登录方法之外还有可使用stream.file/stream.url 参数来直接传递本地文件登录。前提是需要将solrconfig.xml中的设置<requestParsers enableRemoteStreaming="true"打开。

  2. 文件更新,id,unique key设定为前提,跟新加一样,支持json/xml/csv的post和curl来更新:

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    curl "http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/update?commit=true" --data-binary @update.json -H 'Content-type:text/json; charset=utf-8'
    bin/post -c solrbook ${EXAMPLE}/ch03/update.json
  3. 局部更新可以使用修饰子setadd(multiValue=true时候)remove等记述在数据中,如下json文件格式:

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    [
    {"id": "http://sample.com/book?id=001",
    "title": {"set":"Apache Solr 入門 改訂"},
    "author": {"add":["西潟 一生"]}
    }
    ]
  4. 文档的删除有两种方法,一是指定unique key删除,二是使用query删除:

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    {"delete":{"id":"http://sample.com/book?id=001"}}
    {"delete":{"id":["http://sample.com/book?id=001","http://xxx"]}}
    {"delete":{"query":"author:xxx"}}
  • post tool:

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    $ ${SOLR}/bin/post -c solrbook ${EXAMPLE}/ch03/del.json -format solr
  • curl:

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    $ curl "http://192.168.2.122:8983/solr/solrbook/update?commit=true" --data-binary @del.json -H 'Content-type:text/json; charset=utf-8'
  • commit=truerollback=true

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